Education in general and higher education, in particular, is the subject of a great deal of study. Higher education is the backbone of any society. It is the quality of higher education that decides the quality of human resources in a country. Higher education includes college and university teaching and learning process towards which students march to attain the higher educational qualification. Higher education imparts in-depth knowledge and understanding so as to advance the students to new frontiers of knowledge.
Higher education also provides opportunities for lifelong learning, allowing people to upgrade their knowledge and skills from time to time based on societal needs.
Meaning of Higher education1:
In the context of formal education, there are four levels or stages of Education namely- Elementary or Primary Education level, Secondary Education Level, and Higher or University level.
The stages of education after secondary education up to postgraduate of Research degree level considered as Higher Education. In simple words, Higher Education is the education above the instructional of the Secondary school, usually beginning with grade 13, which is provided by Colleges, Universities and Graduate Schools, Junior Colleges,
Professional Schools and other degree-granting institutions. It is the stages of education covering Bachelors degree, Master degree, Master of Philosophy Degree, and Doctorate of Philosophy Degree, etc.
Higher education is one sense, can be called the tertiary level of education, which is the top of the education pyramid. Higher education may be of general education or non-technical education as well as technical and professional education. Higher education has three (3) levels of degree such as Ig degree of Bachelor course, 2nd degree of Master course, and 3rd degree of Master of Philosophy or Doctor of Philosophy in the Indian context.
The chief aim of higher education is to produce adequate and qualified human resources for the economy as a whole, of such quality and quantity that they are attained to the production activities of the state and by the way, the State’s social, economic, political, civil and cultural environment become self-sustained and vibrant. The ultimate objective of higher education will, therefore, be the facilitation of our graduates and post-graduates is to prepare them to face the Global Competition. (Annual Administration Report, for the year 2004-05 Directorate of Higher Education, Manipur).
The Objectives and Purposes of Higher Education1:
The Radhakrishanan Commission3 purposed the following objectives and purposes of Higher Education.
- In the changing political, social and economic conditions, providing healthy representation in politics, administration, profession, industry and commerce.
- In the universities, developing an intellectual attitude towards things and encouraging growth of knowledge among the youth.
- Emphasizing social reform through the creation of sighted, intelligent and courageous leadership.
- Encouraging Universities to play their part as organs of culture and the intellectual leader on civilization.
- Making endeavor for the success of democracy.
- Discovering the innate qualities of individuals and developing them through suitable training.
- Creating the sentiments of National discipline, International awareness, intellectual development, justice, freedom, equality and brotherhood.
The Kothari commission’ has expressed its view of the objective or ideal of higher education in the following terms:
- Seeking knowledge within the framework of truth, using tradition, knowledge, in new circumstances.
- Giving educated and train people to society in the sphere of art, sciences, agriculture, medicines, and industries.
- Developing leadership in every sphere of life.
- Encouraging social justice.
- Nourishing the right values among students and teachers.
- Reducing social and cultural disparities.
- Working for the development of national consciousness.
- Developing the program for adult education.
The Purpose of Higher education2:
Barnett (1992)4 suggests the following as common perspectives on the purpose of Higher Education (HE):
- Production of qualified human resources: Higher education can be considered as a process in which the students are counted as “products” to be absorbed in the market. Thus higher education becomes the crucial input to the growth and development of business and industry.
- Training for a research career: Higher education contributes to preparing qualified scientists and researchers which would help in producing quality research publications.
- Building the right kind of teaching-learning environment: Institutions of HE focus on the creation and sustenance of the right kind of teaching-learning environment by improving the quality of teaching and thus enabling students to acquire global competencies in various fields of study and application to successfully face the challenges in the changing global scenario.
- Higher education as a matter of extending life chances: Higher education is seen as an opportunity to participate in the development process of an individual through a flexible, continuing education mode.
This Article collected from:
- 1. Hijam, R. D. (2012). Management of the higher education in Manipur since 1972. http://hdl.handle.net/10603/39238
- 2. Rao, M. S., & V, K. V. (2011). Quality management in higher education: A case study of MBA colleges in select districts coastal Andhra Pradesh, India. http://hdl.handle.net/10603/8364
- 3. Barnet.R. 1992 Bernett R. (1992). Learning to Effect. Buckingham: Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press.
- 4. Bhatnagar Suresh: Modern Indian Education & its Problems, Surya Publication, Meerut, 1996.p/223